Provostial Advisory Group on Faculty Gender Pay Equity

Executive Summary


Introduction

The University of Toronto’s Provostial Advisory Group on Faculty Gender Pay Equity, comprising faculty, academic administrators and staff, was convened in the fall of 2016 by Vice-President & Provost Cheryl Regehr.

The group was charged with undertaking the most comprehensive study to date of the salaries of full-time appointed men and women faculty at the University to determine whether, and to what extent, there exists a significant gender-based pay gap among University of Toronto faculty.

The analysis was undertaken by an expert group including three faculty members who are distinguished for their knowledge and expertise in this area drawn from the disciplines of economics, management, and statistics. They were supported by a staff member and graduate student in their work.

The objective was to develop a statistical model that would allow the University to identify the closest peer-to-peer comparisons of men and women faculty salaries, taking into account individual differences in experience (measured as years since highest degree and rank), field of study, and other relevant factors.

The report provides findings following two years of substantive analysis.

Background

The issue of gender pay equity at universities in Canada and peer institutions internationally has received significant study over the last decade. Institutions such as the University of British Columbia (2010, 2012), Western University (2005, 2009), the University of Waterloo (2016), and McMaster University (2014) have conducted studies of faculty salaries with respect to gender.

In addition, a number of peer institutions internationally have also conducted analyses of faculty salaries by gender, most notably the London School of Economics and the University of California, Berkeley.

All of these studies have documented gender-based pay gaps that cannot be fully explained by factors such as experience, rank, academic discipline or field of study, and research productivity.

The Berkeley study, in particular, provided a detailed and comprehensive overview of the methodology used in gender pay equity studies, including a discussion of academic salaries more generally in research-intensive public universities.*

*“Report on the UC Berkeley Faculty Salary Equity Study,” Office of the Vice-Provost for the Faculty, January 2015.

Summary of Main Findings

Tenured and Tenure Stream Faculty

On average, tenured and tenure stream women faculty at the University of Toronto earn 1.3% less than comparably situated faculty who are men, after controlling for experience, field of study, seniority, and other relevant factors.* Our analysis indicates that the overall raw average difference in salary between men and women tenure-stream faculty of 12% is largely explained by the fact that women in the tenure stream at the University of Toronto have fewer years of experience and work in lower paying fields of study.

*The complete regression model includes three additional controls: experience prior to hire; administrative positions; Canada Research Chair/University Professorship.

Continuing Stream Teaching Stream Faculty

There is no statistically significant difference between the salaries of men and women continuing stream teaching stream faculty. This result holds for all levels of pay and is robust across all model specifications.  

Report


The Report of the Provostial Advisory Group on Faculty Gender Pay Equity is available online here.

Administrative Response


The Vice-President & Provost’s Response to Report of the Provostial Advisory Group on Faculty Gender Pay Equity is available online here.

Joint Statement with University of Toronto Faculty Association


The Vice-President and & Provost and University of Toronto Faculty Association (UTFA) have issued a joint statement available online here.

Frequently Asked Questions


What prompted the report and what was the mandate of the Provostial Advisory Group on Faculty Gender Pay Equity?

  • The issue of gender pay equity at Canadian universities and international peer institutions has received significant study over the last decade. In the past, the University of Toronto has conducted reviews of faculty salaries on the basis of gender and made adjustments to salaries where they were found to be anomalous.
  • The Provostial Advisory Group on Faculty Gender Pay Equity was convened in the fall of 2016 by Vice-President & Provost Cheryl Regehr. This group was charged with undertaking a detailed analysis – the most comprehensive to date – to determine whether, and to what extent, there existed a significant gender-based pay gap among University full-time appointed faculty in the tenure and teaching streams.
  • The analysis took two years to complete, reflecting both the size and complexity of the University.

Why did you conduct this analysis?

  • As a leading global University committed to excellence, we want to be an employer of choice for the best and brightest faculty in all fields of study. Part of that is ensuring our compensation is fair and equitable. This requires periodic reviews to address gender-based salary inequities.
  • This analysis is the most comprehensive to date and reflects the University’s strong commitment to identifying, understanding, and addressing any gap in faculty salaries that may be attributable to gendr.

Who conducted the analysis?

  • The detailed data analysis was conducted over two years by a small expert group that comprised three faculty members who are distinguished for their knowledge and expertise in this area:  Professors Dwayne Benjamin (Economics), Alison Gibbs (Statistics), and Joanne Oxley (Management).  This group also included one staff member (Dr. Julia Rabinovich) and a graduate student (Boriana Miloucheva).

What methodology was used to conduct the data analysis?

  • We used a regression model that estimates the percentage difference in earnings between men and women after controlling for years since highest degree, rank, academic unit, and other relevant factors. The additional factors included experience prior to hire, administrative positions, and whether or not the individual had ever held a Canada Research Chair or University Professorship.
  • The estimation was conducted separately for tenured and tenure stream faculty, and continuing stream teaching stream faculty. This allows us to identify the closest peer-to-peer comparisons of men and women faculty salaries, taking into account individual differences in experience and field of study.

What did the analysis find?

  • The analysis contains two important findings:
    • Tenured and Tenure Stream Faculty: On average, tenured and tenure-stream women faculty at the University of Toronto earn 1.3% less than comparably situated faculty who are men, after controlling for experience, field of study, and other relevant factors.*
    • Continuing Stream Teaching Stream Faculty: There is no statistically significant difference between the salaries of men and women continuing stream teaching stream faculty. This result holds for all levels of pay and is robust across all model specifications.

*The complete regression model includes three additional controls: experience prior to hire; administrative positions; Canada Research Chair/University Professorship. See p. 13 of the report for details.

How do U of T’s findings compare to the findings of other peer institutions?

  • All of the studies conducted over the last 10 years by Canadian universities and international peer institutions have documented gender-based pay gaps. Many of these universities have made one-time across-the-board corrections of $2,000 to $3,000 to the base salaries of women faculty.
  • Our analysis found a statistically significant gap of 1.3% between tenured and tenure-stream women faculty and comparably situated men, which is very similar to findings reported by peer institutions.

What are you planning to do with this report? What are the next steps?

  • The report has been accepted by Cheryl Regehr, Vice-President & Provost. In consultation with President Meric Gertler and the Faculty Deans, the Provost has determined that immediate action is needed to address the gender-pay gap identified in the analysis.
  • Therefore, effectively July 1, 2019, every woman faculty member who is tenured or in the tenure stream at the University will receive a 1.3% increase to her June 30, 2019 base salary.
  • Gender pay equity is an important priority for the University and is part of a broad and long-standing strategy to enhance and support gender equity, diversity and inclusion at the University of Toronto.
  • The Provost has recommended that the University undertake periodic review and analysis to confirm that the measures in place continue to support gender-based equity, and that gender-based pay gaps do not reappear over time.
  • The University is also committed to conducting a similar analysis for our librarian colleagues in continuing appointments.